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Selling to the Souls of Black Folk: Atlanta, Reverend J.M. Gates, the Phonograph, and the Transformation of African American Protestantism and Culture, 1910-1945.

Martin, Lerone (2011)
Dissertation (243 pages)
Committee Chair / Thesis Adviser: Laderman, Gary
Committee Members: Diakite, Dianne M ; Lewis, Earl ; Best, Wallace (Princeton University);
Research Fields: Religion, History of; History, Black; Mass Communications
Keywords: African Americans; Black; black religion; phonograph; J.M. Gates; race records; Atlanta; religion; Religion in the South; tele-evangelism; religious broadcasting
Program: Laney Graduate School, Religion (American Religious Cultures)
Permanent url: http://pid.emory.edu/ark:/25593/912kx

Abstract


There is much work in the discipline of American religious history that chronicles
the significance of mass mediums such as print, radio, film, television, and the Internet in
the practice(s) of Protestant Christianity. However, the field has been slow to recognize
the phonograph as an equally vital tool within these traditions. Selling to the Souls of
Black Folk takes up this neglected task by historically tracing the phenomenon of African
American Protestant clergy utilizing the phonograph for the mass transmission of their
sermons during the first half of the Twentieth century. This unprecedented use of mass
communication and religious commodification enabled black clergy, who were largely
marginalized from radio, to become cultural celebrities, alongside popular music artists,
within African American communities. Leading record labels recorded these spiritual
commodities and advertised them in black newspapers, posters, handbills, department
stores, mail-order catalogues, record label shops, and furniture stores. As a result, the
placement of these sermons on the market shelf significantly altered the substance and
form of black religious practices. This story examines several of the approximately one
hundred African American phonograph sermon recorders prior to World War II.
However, Atlanta and the city's Reverend J.M. Gates, the most prolific phonograph
sermon recorder, are the anchors of this historical study. This conceptual lynchpin allows
for a concentrated analysis of how the emergence and popularity of phonograph sermons
both reflected and facilitated shifts within African American Protestantism. Selling to the
Souls of Black Folk, therefore, offers an important historical account that is essential to
understanding the major trends and practices that undergird contemporary American
Protestantism and religious broadcasting.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS -- INTRODUCTION: WRITING AFRICAN AMERICANS INTO THE HISTORIES OF -- AMERICAN MASS MEDIA RELIGION ..........................................................................1 -- Scope of the Project .................................................................................................9 -- PART ONE -- CHAPTER ONE: AIN'T NO LOVE IN THE HEART OF THE CITY, MIGRATION, -- SEGREGATION, AND CONGREGATION IN BLACK ATLANTA, 1890-1920 .........18 -- Black Migration to Atlanta ....................................................................................21 -- The Parallel City Behind the Veil..........................................................................26 -- CHAPTER TWO: "OH DEATH WHERE IS THY STING?:" AFRICAN AMERICAN -- PROTESTANT RELIGION AND THE "PROBLEM OF AMUSEMENT" IN -- ATLANTA.........................................................................................................................33 -- The Negro Young People's Christian and Educational Congress……………….40 -- Commercial Amusements, Religion, and Morality in Atlanta…………………..45 -- Chapter Conclusion……………………………………………………………...57 -- CHAPTER THREE: THE COLOR OF THE PHONOGRAPH: THE PHONOGRAPH -- INDUSTRY, RACE RECORDS, AND AFRICAN AMERICAN -- PROTESTANTISM……………………………………………………………………...60 -- The Phonograph in American Life……………………………………………….62 -- The Phonograph in Black: Race Records………………………………………...72 -- The Phonograph, African American Amusement, and Religion…………………85 -- Chapter Conclusion………………………………………………………………89 -- CHAPTER FOUR: SANCTIFYING THE PHONOGRAPH: THE EMERGENCE OF -- RECORDED SERMONS………………………………………………………………..90 -- Recorded Sermons on the Phonograph ………………………………………….92 -- Recorded Sermons and Twentieth Century Protestantism……………………..104 -- Chapter Conclusion…………………………………………………………….107 -- PART TWO -- CHAPTER FIVE: A MIGRANT'S STORY OF THE CITY: REVEREND JAMES M. -- GATES AND THE EMERGENCE OF AN URBAN MINISTRY…………………….110 -- Reverend Gates and Mount Calvary Baptist Church……………………………..116 -- Rural Protestantism in the Modern City………………………………………….119 -- Chapter Conclusion………………………………………………………………136 -- CHAPTER SIX: AMERICAN IDOLS: REVEREND J.M. GATES, THE POPULARITY -- OF RECORDED SERMONS, AND THE MASS MEDIA CELEBRITY OF AFRICAN -- AMERICAN PREACHERS……………………………………………………………138 -- The Great Migration and Modern Black Religious Expression………………….139 -- Gates and the Creation of the Black Religious Commercial Celebrity…………..149 -- Money…………………………………………………………………………….163 -- Chapter Conclusion………………………………………………………………171 -- CHAPTER SEVEN: "IT'S TIGHT LIKE THAT:" ANALYZING THE RECORDED -- SERMONS OF REVEREND GATES…………………………………………………173 -- Rev. Gates and Commercial Amusement………………………………………...174 -- Gender……………………………………………………………………………181 -- Current Events…………………………………………………………………....185 -- Chain Stores………………………………………………………………………193 -- Chapter Conclusion………………………………………………………………205 -- CONCLUSION: "OF THE WINGS OFATALANTA:" THE LEGACY OF REVEREND -- J.M. GATES, ATLANTA, AND RECORDED SERMONS…………………………..208 -- POSTSCRIPT…………………………………………………………………………..216 -- BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………217 -- TABLE AND FIGURES -- TABLE: African American Population in Atlanta, 1860-1940 ………………………...22 -- FIGURE 1: 1902 Gramophone advertisement, The Atlanta Constitution, Jan 15, 1902, -- pg.7………………………………………...……………………………………………..62 -- FIGURE 2: 1910 Victrola advertisement, The Atlanta Constitution, Jan 20, 1910, -- pg.5……………………………………………………………………………………….64 -- FIGURE 3: 1910 Victor Phonograph advertisement, The Atlanta Constitution, Dec 10, -- 1910, pg.7………………………………………………………………………………...66 -- FIGURE 4: 1918 Victor advertisement, The Atlanta Constitution, Dec 24, 1918,! -- pg.7…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...66 -- FIGURE 5: Okeh Records advertisement, The Chicago Defender, May 05, 1923, p.6, -- col.1………………………………………………………………………………………83 -- FIGURE 6: Black Billy Sunday Sermon advertisement, The Chicago Defender, Mar 07, -- 1925, pg.2, col.1………………………………………………………………………….96 -- FIGURE 7: Black Billy Sunday Sermon advertisement, The Chicago Defender, January -- 30, 1926, Part 1, pg.7……………………………………………………….....................97 -- FIGURE 8: Reverend W.A. White Sermon advertisement, Chicago Defender, Sep 26, -- 1925, p.7, col.4…………………………………………………………………………...99 -- FIGURE 9: Reverend Mosley advertisement found in, The Chicago Defender Jan 01, -- 1927, p.6, col.3………………………………………………………………………….100 -- FIGURE 10: Reverend Leora Ross advertisement found in, Chicago Defender, Aug 27, -- 1927, p.3, col.6………………………………………………………………………….103 -- FIGURE 11: "Birth of a Nation," advertisement found in, The Atlanta Constitution, -- Dec 5, 1915, pg. C12…………………………………………………………………...120 -- FIGURE 12: Pastoral Installation of Reverend Gates from "Being Installed," Atlanta -- Daily World, Mar 21,1937, pg. 3……………………………………………………….131 -- FIGURE 13: Reverend Gates "Death's Black Train is Coming," Sermon advertisement -- The Chicago Defender, August 7,1926, Part 1, pg.7………….......................................153 -- FIGURE 14: Reverend Gates "Death's Black Train is Coming," Sermon advertisement, -- found in, The Pittsburgh Courier, August 7,1926, pg.6………………………………..154 -- FIGURE 15: Reverend Gates "Death's Black Train is Coming," Sermon advertisement, -- found in, Chicago Defender, August, 21,1926, pg.8 ……...…………………………...155 -- FIGURE 16: "Noah and the Flood," Sermon advertisement, Chicago Defender, May 14, -- 1927, pg.6……………………………………………………………………………….156 -- FIGURE 17: advertisement found in, The New York Amsterdam News, November 17, -- 1926, pg. 12……………………………………………………………………………. 157 -- FIGURE 18: Reverend Gates and Louis Armstrong advertisement found in The -- Pittsburgh Courier, Dec 24, 1927, pg.15……………………………………………… 158 -- FIGURE 19: "God in the St. Louis Cyclone," Sermon advertisement, Chicago Defender, -- November 26, 1927, pg.3……………………………………………………………… 159 -- FIGURE 20: "Reverend Gates Returns to the City," found in Atlanta Daily World, Sep -- 25, 1932,4A…………………………………………………………………………… 162 -- FIGURE 21: "Death Might Be Your Santa Clause," Sermon advertisement found in, New -- York Amsterdam News, Dec 08, 1926, p.13, col.1……………………………………...164 -- FIGURE 22: "Dead Cat on a Line," Sermon advertisement found in, The Chicago -- Defender, Jul 13, 1929, pg.2…………………………………………………………... 179 -- FIGURE 23: "Manish Women" Sermon advertisement found in, The Chicago Defender, -- May 10, 1930, pg.2…………………………………………………………………......184

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