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Childhood Trauma and Resilience: Towards a Spiritually Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Approach

Glenn, Ca Trice B. (2013)
Dissertation (276 pages)
Committee Chair / Thesis Adviser: Lartey, Emmanuel Y
Committee Members: Ellison II, Gregory C ; Cooper-White, Pamela (Columbia Theological Seminary);
Research Fields: Theology
Keywords: Resilience; Coping; Childhood Trauma; Childhood Maltreatment; Traumatic Stress; Spirituality; Religious; Spiritual Identity; Spiritual Identity Development; Pastoral Theology; Pastoral Care; Pastoral Counseling; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Late Adolescent; Late Adolescence; Emerging Adult; Emerging Adulthood; Young Adult; Young Adulthood; Emotional Abuse; Physical Abuse; Sexual Abuse; Emotional Neglect; Physical Neglect
Program: Candler School of Theology, Pastoral Counseling
Permanent url: http://pid.emory.edu/ark:/25593/crg51

Abstract

For many emerging adult childhood trauma survivors (ages 18-25), spirituality can influence the sustainability of resilience in significant ways. A gap exists in the literature regarding the effective integration of spirituality and resilience in therapeutic interventions with this population, particularly among pastoral counseling approaches. This work examines whether or not a Cognitive Behavior Therapy approach highlighting the interaction between spirituality identity development and resilience development enhances survivor resilience. In a pilot study, twenty college students were sequentially assigned to either a treatment group (N=10) or control group (N=10). Treatment group participants received four sessions of an experimental spiritually focused cognitive behavior therapy intervention. Both groups completed pre-test and post-test assessments with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Research results derived from quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Based upon a univariate analysis of variance, it appears resiliency scores did not differ significantly following the treatment intervention, p = .55. Based on the Royal Free Interview for Spiritual and Religious Beliefs instrument, participant perceptions of a spiritual power or force influencing day-to-day life appear significantly different following the treatment intervention p = .04 and perceptions of a spiritual power or force enabling them to cope with events in their life appear slightly significant p = .06. Qualitative analysis revealed three prominent themes of spirituality that influenced resilience (Beliefs, Practices and Communication) and seven sub-themes (Character of God, Religious Beliefs, Spiritual Beliefs, Relationship to God; Community, Spiritual Disciplines; and Forms of Communicating). In conclusion, religious language, and one's perceived relationship to God during childhood trauma can affect both adaptive and maladaptive coping for survivors. Additionally, the task of identity exploration can amplify evolving theological conflicts in emerging adulthood and influence survivor coping. Emerging adult childhood trauma survivors in this study experienced theological conflicts between the spiritual elements that aided in childhood coping and their present-day spiritual realities.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS -- Abstract -- Acknowledgments -- Abbreviations -- Introduction: Childhood Maltreatment and Childhood Trauma Overview ----- 1 -- Emerging Adulthood ----- 5 -- Nature of the Problem and Basic Assumptions ----- 9 -- Study Background and Purpose ----- 13 -- Research Design and Methodology ----- 14 -- Chapter 1: Childhood Trauma, Resilience, and Spirituality Literature Review ----- 19 -- Trauma Overview ----- 20 -- Childhood Trauma -- Social Sciences Literature ----- 22 -- Interpersonal Childhood Trauma ----- 27 -- Interpersonal Childhood Trauma and Emerging Adulthood ----- 36 -- Theology Literature ----- 38 -- Sin in Context ----- 41 -- Fragmented Personhood ----- 46 -- Resilience -- Social Sciences Literature ----- 49 -- Resilience and Emerging Adulthood ----- 53 -- Theology Literature ----- 58 -- The Survivor: Resistance to Violence ----- 58 -- Spirituality with Emerging Adults -- Social Sciences Literature ----- 61 -- Spirituality and Resilience ----- 63 -- Theology Literature ----- 66 -- Restoration: Finding Meaning and Purpose ----- 66 -- Emerging Adult Spirituality and Resilience ----- 68 -- PART I: TREATMENT AND HEALING APPROACHES -- Theological and Psychological Perspectives of 'Adaptive' Living -- Chapter 2: Theory and Treatment Approaches ----- 78 -- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Overview ----- 80 -- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Childhood Trauma Survivors ----- 83 -- Assessments and Treatment Considerations ----- 85 -- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Resilience ----- 90 -- Assessments and Treatment Considerations ----- 93 -- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Spiritual/Religious Clients ----- 96 -- Assessments and Treatment Considerations ----- 106 -- Chapter 3: Theology and Healing Approaches ----- 112 -- Theology and Pastoral Counseling Overview ----- 112 -- Pastoral Theology Research Method ----- 113 -- Faith Development and Spiritual Identity Development ----- 115 -- Culture and Emerging Adult Spiritual Development ----- 122 -- Trauma and Suffering ----- 123 -- Pastoral Counseling and Reconciliation ----- 126 -- Pastoral Counseling with Childhood Trauma Survivors during Emerging Adulthood ----- 132 -- Developing a Pastoral Counseling Approach ----- 134 -- Eschatological Hope ----- 134 -- Eschatological Plot ----- 136 -- PART II: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY -- Research, Findings and Discussion -- Chapter 4: Methodology ----- 139 -- Research Design ----- 140 -- Population Sample ----- 141 -- Instruments ----- 142 -- Data Collection ----- 147 -- Statistical Method ----- 147 -- Research Design and Procedures ----- 149 -- Chapter 5: Results ----- 154 -- Demographic Sample ----- 154 -- Descriptive Statistics ----- 156 -- Pre-screen Instruments ----- 156 -- Presenting Issues -- Gender and Presenting Issues ----- 158 -- Ethnicity and Presenting Issues ----- 159 -- Religious/Spiritual Background and Presenting Issues ----- 159 -- Childhood Trauma Questionnaire -- Gender and Childhood Trauma ----- 164 -- Ethnicity and Childhood Trauma ----- 165 -- Religious/Spiritual Background and Childhood Trauma ----- 169 -- Quantitative Findings -- Results for Research: Question One ----- 171 -- Results for Research: Question Two ----- 174 -- Qualitative Findings -- Results for Research: Question Two ----- 175 -- Results for Research: Question Three ----- 180 -- Chapter 6: Discussion, Implications, Future Research, and Conclusion ----- 184 -- Discussion and Implications ----- 189 -- Goal 1- Spiritual Identity Development and Resilience ----- 191 -- Christian Theology and Childhood Trauma ----- 193 -- Christian Theology and Emerging Adult Survivors ----- 195 -- Case Studies - Spiritual Identity Development ----- 197 -- Goal 2- Spiritual Elements that Influence Resilience ----- 205 -- Christian Theology and Survivor Resilience ----- 210 -- Fragmented-Compartmentalization ----- 214 -- Goal 3- Towards the Development of an ----- 220 -- Effective Spiritual Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy Approach -- Christian Theology and Clinical Practice ----- 222 -- Future Research ----- 224 -- Conclusion ----- 226 -- Index of Tables ----- 230 -- Appendixes ----- 231 -- Appendix A - Institutional Review Board Protocol ----- 232 -- Appendix B - Informed Consent Form ----- 236 -- Appendix C - Demographic Information Sheet ----- 239 -- Appendix D - Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) ----- 240 -- Appendix E - Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) ----- 241 -- Appendix F - Modified Royal Free Interview for Spiritual and Religious Beliefs (RFI) ----- 242 -- Appendix G - Narrative Questionnaire ----- 246 -- Appendix H - Referral Information ----- 248 -- Appendix I - Treatment Group Homework - Week 1 ----- 249 -- Appendix J - Treatment Group Homework - Week 2 ----- 250 -- Bibliography ----- 252

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