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Perceived Religious Stigma and the Decision to Change Religion over the Lifetime: Characterizing Religiosity of Men who Have Sex with Men

Baugher, Amy (2013)
Master's Thesis (72 pages)
Committee Chair / Thesis Adviser: Sanchez, Travis
Committee Members:
Research Fields: Health Sciences, Public Health; Religion, General; Health Sciences, Epidemiology
Partnering Agencies: Emory University schools, faculty or affiliated programs
Keywords: Men who have sex with men; Religion; Perceived Stigma; Mental Health; Epidemiology; United States; Homophobia
Program: Rollins School of Public Health, Epidemiology (Epidemiology)
Permanent url: http://pid.emory.edu/ark:/25593/d95fb

Abstract

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) have described perceived disapproval of homosexuality from organized religion, which is related to internalized homophobia and depression in previous literature. Objective: This research sought to explore whether MSM who perceive homophobia from their current religion choose to stay in that religion ("religious consistency"). Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted, recruiting MSM in the metropolitan Atlanta area using time-space venue sampling. All MSM in this sample are HIV-negative, African-American or white race, and 18-39 years old. Modeling analyses were restricted to MSM who were raised in and currently practice a religion (n=119). Bivariate analyses were conducted using chi-square tests. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Results: The majority of MSM in this sample reported that their childhood religion disapproved of homosexuality. MSM with consistent religion were more likely to believe their current religion disapproves of homosexuality (p<0.0001), their community has positive perceptions of MSM (p=0.02), and report Baptist affiliation (p<0.0001). In the multivariate model, the outcome of religious consistency was related to perceived current religious disapproval of homosexuality (aOR=2.42, 95%CL: 1.45, 4.05), lower income (aOR=0.71, 95%CL: 0.55, 0.93), and non-Baptist affiliation (aOR=0.21, 95%CL: 0.06, 0.73). Race, age, internalized homophobia, community perceptions, depression, and resiliency were not related to religious consistency. Discussion: The three main findings from this analysis are: MSM are more likely to stay in their religion over time when the religion disapproves of homosexuality, MSM report high levels of childhood disapproval of homosexuality, and no psychosocial factors were significantly related to religious consistency. These findings have implications for public health professionals and researchers interested in church-based interventions related to MSM health and researchers interested in the relationship between MSM and organized religion. Future studies should examine both HIV-positive and -negative MSM and both religious and non-religious MSM.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents................................................... Page Number -- I. Chapter 1 -- a. BackgroundΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.....................1 -- II. Chapter 2 -- a. IntroductionΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦................ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦...ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..6 -- b. MethodsΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦................ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦...ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..7 -- c. ResultsΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.................ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦13 -- d. DiscussionΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦................ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..16 -- III. Chapter 3 -- a. Public Health ImplicationsΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.................ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.21 -- b. ConclusionsΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.................ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦25 -- IV. ReferencesΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦............ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦26 -- V. Tables and Figures -- a. Figure 1. Directional acyclic graph illustrating the theoretical -- relationship between current perceived religious stigma and -- religious consistency, accounting for demographic, religious, -- and psychosocial factorsΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.....ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.........30 -- b. Figure 2. Flow chart illustrating the sample selection method of -- participants in the final analysis.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦...ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..........ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.31 -- c. Table 1. Univariate analyses showing the demographic -- distribution of MSM organized by religious historyΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦...ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.32 -- d. Table 2. Bivariate analyses examining the distribution of -- MSM with a consistent lifetime religious affiliation compared -- to the total sample of MSMΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..........ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.35 -- e. Table 3. Final adjusted model showing factors related religious -- consistency, among MSM who were raised in and currently -- practice a religionΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..............ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦37 -- f. Figure 3. The relationship between covariates and religious -- consistency among MSMΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.............ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦38 -- VI. Appendices -- a. Appendix A. Survey InstrumentsΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦....ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦.ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦39 -- b. Appendix B. SAS CodeΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦........ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦..ΓƒΒ’Γ’β€šΒ¬Γ‚Β¦....43

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